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Saturday, November 27, 2021

Current issues in india 2021 :- two child policy

In view of the increasing pressure on education, health, agriculture, housing, employment in the country, the demand for making the two-child policy mandatory has increased. However, experts say that taking a lesson from China, India should take a decision on this issue.
The latest data of National Family Health Survey-5 proves that India has improved in relation to family planning and the average child birth rate has also seen a decline.Experts say that this proves that the country's population is stable and the fear of population explosion and the mandatory two-child policy are misleading. Along with this, this topic also becomes a matter of discussion because to what extent it is logical for a country like India to adopt the policy of two children and what should India learn from China in this regard.

Significantly, during the speech on Independence Day in the year 2019, Prime Minister Narendra Modi had appealed to the country for population control. A large part of the Prime Minister's speech was driven by concerns related to environmental and behavioral changes. The Prime Minister had described the efforts to control the population as a form of patriotism and also asked the entire society to come forward to achieve it. He had said that the situation of population explosion in the country will create various problems for the future generations. Those who follow the policy of small family also contribute to the development.

NITI Aayog later invited various stakeholders for national level consultations on the issue but it was later turned down.

In 2020, the prime minister talked about a possible decision to revise the age of marriage for women, which many see as an indirect attempt to control the population.

The first part of the National Family Health Survey-5 report which was made public sometime back shows data from 17 states and 5 union territories. An analysis of these figures by the international non-profit organization Population Council shows that 14 out of 17 states in India have reduced the total fertility rate (number of children born per woman) or fertility per woman. The rate is 2-1 or less. This means that most states have established replacement level fertility, the average number of children born per woman, that a population can completely replace itself with from one generation to the next.

This data shows that the notion of having two children is wrong and a myth. However, family health programs are necessary to uphold the rights and dignity of individuals.

A decline in the use of modern methods of contraception was observed in 12 out of 22 states and union territories during the National Family Health Survey-3 and National Family Health Survey-4 conducted between 2005 and 2016. Whereas in the National Family Health Survey-5, 11 out of 12 states where the use of these contraceptives were previously reduced or now increased. According to the survey conducted by experts, attention has also been drawn regarding the growth of child marriages And it has been appealed that it is necessary for policy-makers to pay attention to curb early pregnancies in this area. However, it has been observed that there is no national policy regarding two children per family. In this case, a bill was introduced in the Rajya Sabha in November 2019, in which incentives for small families were proposed.

Policy relating to two children in different states: Status as of 2019

Assam

According to the decision taken by the Assam cabinet, from the year 2021, people with more than two children will be considered ineligible for government jobs.

Rajasthan

In the case of government jobs, candidates having more than two children will not be eligible for appointment.

According to the Rajasthan Panchayati Raj Act, 1994, if a person has more than two children, he will be disqualified to contest election as a member of Gram Panchayat or Ward. However, the previous government had relaxed the two children criterion in the case of a disabled child.

Madhya Pradesh

The state is following the policy of two child norms since the year 2001. According to the Madhya Pradesh Civil Services (General Condition of Services) Rules, if the third child is born on or after January 26, 2001, that person will be considered ineligible for any government service. This rule also applies to higher judicial services.

Madhya Pradesh followed the two-child model for candidates for local body elections till 2005, but it was practically discontinued after objections were raised. However, such a rule was not applicable in assembly and parliamentary elections.

Telangana and Andhra Pradesh

A person having more than two children shall be disqualified from contesting elections under section 19(3) and section 153(2) and 184(2) of the Telangana Panchayati Raj Act, 1994.

However, if a person had more than two children before May 30, 1994, he would not be disqualified. The same clause in the Andhra Pradesh Panchayat States Act, 1994 is also applicable to Andhra Pradesh, where a person having more than two children will be disqualified from contesting elections.

Gujarat

The Gujarat Local Authorities Act was amended by the government in the year 2005. According to which any person having more than two children has been disqualified for contesting elections to local self-government, panchayats, municipalities and municipal bodies.

Maharashtra

Maharashtra Zilla Parishad and Panchayat Samiti Act The person having more than two children will be disqualified to contest the local corporation elections (from Gram Panchayat to Municipal Corporation).

As per the Maharashtra Civil Services (Declaration of Small Family) Corporation, 2005, a person having more than two children is disqualified for any post in the state government. The benefit of Public Distribution System is not given to women having more than two children.

Uttarakhand

A decision was taken by the state government to bar people with more than two children from contesting panchayat elections and a bill was passed in this regard in the assembly. But after the challenge of this decision in the High Court by those contesting the election of Gram Pradhan and Gram Panchayat Ward Member, they were given relief. Under this, the condition of having two children criterion has been made applicable only to those who contested the elections of Zilla Panchayat.

Karnataka

The Karnataka (Gram Swaraj and Panchayat Raj) Act, 1993 cannot prohibit persons having more than two children from contesting elections to local bodies such as Gram Panchayats.

However, according to the law, a person "whose family members do not have sanitary toilets available for use" will be ineligible to contest elections.

Odisha

The Odisha Zilla Parishad Act prohibits persons having more than two children from contesting elections.

two children national policy

August 13, 2018

The petition was submitted to the President to implement the nation policy related to two children.

August 15, 2019

In his address on Independence Day, the Prime Minister had expressed concern over the population explosion.

January 10, 2020

The Supreme Court issued notice to the Central Government on a petition related to the Population Control Act.

January 18, 2020

The issue of population control was raised by RSS director Mohan Bhagwat.

In the petition filed in the Supreme Court, it was said that can India pass a law to have only two children? Can the Indian government come up with a one child policy like China? However, on this the Supreme Court had said that this is an area for Parliament to intervene.

Negative aspects of two child nation policy

According to the Economic Survey 2018-19, by the year 2040, the elderly population in India will reach 16 percent. By the year 2050, this number will cross 33 crores and experts are fearing that if the two child nation policy is not adopted, then these figures may increase further.

Positive aspects of two child nation policy

According to the report of the United Nations, the population of India will be 158 crores by the year 2027, which is currently 131 crores. At the same time, the population of China will be 153 crore in the year 2027. Thus India will become the world's most populous country by the year 2027.
Significantly, due to increase in population, problems like unemployment, poverty, illiteracy, low health level and pollution will increase.

China's position in relation to population

The one child nation policy introduced by China in the year 1979 was aimed at controlling the growing population. At that time the population of China was 97 crores, which has increased to 139 crores in the year 2019.

This policy resulted in 400 million fewer children being born but a sharp decline in the working population. Due to this there was a rapid increase in the old population and to support the elderly generation, the young population started declining. In view of this, China, changing its policy, withdrew the one child nation policy in the year 2016 and allowed two children.

Way ahead

There is a need for nationwide debate on what should be the population policy in India. For this, the Centre, the states and other related institutions will have to come together to reach a conclusion. The lesson of China also says that India should make such a mandatory law that can ensure this work by increasing affordable-accessible education and health services.

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