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Thursday, December 2, 2021

Current issues in india 2021 :- effects of Australian fires

Due to the horrific forest fire of Australia which started in September 2019, while on one hand there is widespread loss of life and property, on the other hand it has become a catastrophic crisis situation for the environment. Areas like New South Wales and Queensland of Australia have been mainly affected in this forest fire. Although forest fire is not a new thing for these areas, as such incidents are seen here every year during this period, But this year's forest fire has broken the records of all the previous years, forcing the whole world to seriously discuss this matter again and take necessary steps.
In this article we are talking about the ten major impacts caused by the horrific forest fires of Australia.

1. Direct, Physically Reflected Effects
According to media reports, by mid-January 2020, the Australian forest fire (although the term bushfire is being used for this in English, which means fire in the bushes, But in a broader context, the term forest fire is being used for this) due to which 18 million hectares of land has been burnt, due to which 5,900 buildings including more than 2,800 houses have been destroyed. Along with life and property, a large number of wildlife have also been harmed by this.

2. Impact on Ecological and Bio-diversity
After the initial devastation of the fire, its effects are still continuing. By one estimate, billions of wildlife, birds and insects are likely to die in the coming weeks and months due to loss of habitat and food. This loss presents a dark side to the drastic decline in biodiversity.
The world's terrestrial biodiversity is concentrated in forests: they are home to more than 80 percent of all terrestrial species of wildlife, flora, and insects in the world. So when there is a fire in the forests, So the biodiversity on which humans depend for their long-term existence also gets converted into ashes.
Currently more than 1 million species are facing extinction. If we do not change our activities then extreme weather events such as "Great Forest Fire" will become a matter of serious concern for the survival of the species.

3. Public Health
According to information received in January 2020, Canberra's air quality was found to be the worst (compared to any major city in the world) due to the smoke from the fire and the air pollution caused by it.
Harmful smoke is generated from forest fire, the fine particles emitted (carbon) combined with the harmful gases present in the air pollution directly pose a threat to human health. This not only causes irritation in the eyes and trouble in the respiratory system but also damages the lungs, Bronchitis, asthma attacks, and premature death are a number of problems that can be rooted in fine particles entering the air system due to forest fires.
According to the World Health Organization, especially the elderly, patients suffering from cardiorespiratory diseases, children and people directly working in the external environment (labourers etc.) are most affected by this.

4. Effects of cross-border forest fires
Smoke from forest fires is not tied to a certain boundary, which is not and will not be the case if Australia is facing a severe forest fire that will have its effects confined to this continent only. It is often seen that due to the pressure generated by the heat emitted from the forest fire, the smoke enters the stratosphere.
According to the World Meteorological Organization, the smoke from the bushfires in Australia has crossed the Pacific Ocean, Which may soon enter the Antarctic region. This has put the air quality of major cities across Australia to a dangerous level, not only affecting the air quality of cities in New Zealand and South America, with the potential to reach Argentina and Chile soon.

5. Mental Health Costs
Such incidents that damage forests not only cause physical damage; Rather, mental damage also reveals a dark form of it. The horrific experience of losing a home, belongings, pets, livestock or other sources of livelihood and emergency evacuation to save life is also traumatizing, making it sometimes a struggle to get out. In the case of Australian forest fires, there are many examples that can better illustrate this situation.

During the incident of forest fire, the power supply of some people's area was disrupted, So somewhere fuel stations stopped working, people could not evacuate in time (without any damage) due to road blockage and were stuck in those high risk areas. Some people were forced to take shelter on beaches and boats in search of safety, in which case permanent trauma to the affected people is common.

6. Economic cost
The damage caused to the country's economy due to the Australian forest fire is still being analyzed, But it is clear that infrastructure has been damaged and its impact can be clearly seen on industries like agriculture and tourism. Some businesses and institutions have been forced to close their operations due to high levels of air pollution.

The level of damage to employment, production, supply and transport/transport infrastructure has not only put the country's economy behind many years, Rather, in this era of competition, at this time the full focus of the country is only on repairing its infrastructure and normalizing life, which is a worrying and painful scenario.

7. Climate response as a trap
Until the 2019–20 Australian forest fires, it was believed that Australian forests were sufficient to absorb the carbon emitted by major and minor forest fires across the country. This means that Australian forests had the status of net zero carbon emissions. However, according to the Copernicus Monitoring Program, climate change has provided greater intensity and frequency of forest fires. So far 400 megatons of carbon dioxide has been emitted into the atmosphere during the event of the year 2019-2020, its direct impact is unbearable even to imagine.

This carbon emissions over the past three months is equal to Australia's average annual carbon dioxide emissions. This would not only increase Australia's annual greenhouse gas emissions, but will also contribute to global climate change and will likely increase the frequency of forest fires leading to more carbon emissions. This is a serious topic related to the climate feedback loop or trap.

8. Environmental Cost: Pollution
Another serious impact of Australian forest fires is also being seen in the form of pollution. Ash from forest fires is entering and accumulating in important places such as playgrounds, homes, beaches of Australia and freshwater sources. The sources of drinking water are usually in forest areas, so they are vulnerable to pollution caused by forest fires.

The ash of forest fire contains a large amount of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous. An increased amount of nutrients can promote the growth of cyanobacteria, Commonly known as blue-green algae. Cyanobacteria produce chemicals that can cause problems such as poor water quality, including bad taste, odor and sometimes toxic chemicals.

If this ash enters the ocean or into streams and rivers, there will be a negative impact on the ecology of the water source concerned.

If we use some examples from the past as context, we can find that forest fire smoke and ash have seriously negative effects on marine ecosystems: haze caused by massive forest fires in Indonesia in the late 1990s had destroyed coral reefs on a large scale.

9. Impact on Agriculture
Widespread pastures have been destroyed due to forest fires, livestock as well as vineyards have been destroyed, In such a situation, regrowth in an area already facing the challenge of drought will put additional burden on water resources.

Media reports indicate that the country's dairy supply is likely to be severely affected by this forest fire, although no clear figures have yet been received, but Australia's major dairy industry is in Victoria and New South Wales. Producing states are facing large-scale loss of farmland and infrastructure. Not only this, due to this, the production of meat, wool and honey can also be affected on a large scale.

According to Meat & Livestock Australia, nationally, about 13 percent of sheep herds are found in areas that have been partially affected by forest fires and 17 percent are from areas that have been affected by the incident. The reasons have been seriously affected.

According to the 2019 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) report on climate change and land, food security and agriculture are already significantly affected by climate change due to warming, changing rainfall patterns and the high frequency of some extreme weather events. Is. In some arid regions, there has been an increase in land surface air temperature and evaporation, which has reduced the amount of precipitation, leading to an increase in desertification. Australia is also included in these areas affected by climate change.

In such an environmental situation, if the short-term impact of the occurrence of forest fire on such a large scale is so serious, then it is also difficult to imagine how frightening its long-term impact will be.
10. Changing Public Attitudes
Although media reports have repeatedly emphasized the dissemination of false information regarding Australian forest fires, the basis for such information is to undermine the link between climate change and catastrophic forest fires or bushfires.

In addition, this event in Australia has provided an insight into the human, ecological and economic devastation of climate change and warming, not only to the Australian people but to the world as a whole. What is the relationship between these two and how weak or strong it is, it is very easy to guess.

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